Tre sorsi di Vino

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Poco tempo fa, parlavo con un mio caro amico di letteratura e storia. Mi diceva che sarebbe stato veramente strepitoso (in realtà il termine utilizzato era differente 😛 , ma è cosa di poco conto), conoscere alcuni personaggi del mondo greco e romano, ai tempi dei simposi. Immaginate questi uomini che, solitamente dopo aver partecipato al banchetto, quindi dopo i pasti, si dilettavano tra spettacoli, danze, momenti ludici, a conversare e bere insieme.

In realtà, già a quel tempo, e parliamo di più di 2500 anni fa, esisteva una figura che dettava delle regole su come bere, chiamata SIMPOSIARCA (i latini lo chiameranno invece MAGISTER BIBENDI) che sceglieva il tema su cui conversare e impartiva le regole del bere. Chissà, ci dicevamo, come disciplinavano le genti che si approcciavano alle colme coppe di vino (e pensate che ogni coppa ne conteneva quasi mezzo litro).

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Ad ogni modo, ho voluto saperne di più, e tra una lettura e l’altra, mi è saltato all’occhio, ma del tutto casualmente, che in letteratura il numero 3, non è solo segno di perfezione e completezza nella numerologia dantesca, ma me lo sono ritrovato in tre grandi protagonisti della cultura italiana ed europea, in relazione al vino: Dioniso, Giovanni Pascoli e Cesare Pavese

Dioniso, dio greco del vino e dell’esaltazione orgiastica, della vegetazione e del regno dei morti,in una commedia andata perduta di Eubulo, dice:

Per gli uomini assennati io mescolo tre crateri; il primo che essi bevono é per la salute, il secondo per
il piacere e il desiderio, il terzo per il sonno. Bevuto questo, i saggi convitati si accingono a tornare a
casa, il quarto cratere non appartiene più alla nostra influenza, ma alla violenza, il quinto al frastuono,
il sesto alla processione baccanica, il settimo agli occhi pesti, l’ottavo é per il testimone d’accusa, il
nono per la collera, il decimo fa uscire di senno. Infatti, un gran numero di libagioni fatte in piccoli
bicchieri taglia facilmente le gambe a chi ha bevuto.

Bene, Dioniso consiglia di bere non più di tre coppe di vino, poiché il primo sorso lo si fa per  salute, il secondo per gioia, per piacere e anche per voglia, il terzo per conciliare bene il sonno. Oltrepassando la soglia dei “tre crateri”, si va incontro, però, alla violenza, al trambusto, alla collera, fino alla perdita della ragione.

Giovanni Pascoli, da Myricae, scrive “I TRE GRAPPOLI”:

Ha tre, Giacinto, grappoli la vite.
Bevi del primo il limpido piacere;
bevi dell’altro l’oblio breve e mite;
e… più non bere:
ché sonno è il terzo, e con lo sguardo acuto
nel nero sonno vigila, da un canto,
sappi, il dolore; e alto grida un muto
pianto già pianto.

Giovanni Pascoli, come Dioniso, si mette a numerare i sorsi di vino, fermandosi al numero tre: egli associa il primo sorso al piacere, il secondo al tema della dimenticanza, molto caro all’autore, anche in relazione alle note vicissitudini familiari e il terzo al sonno. In seguito, mette in guardia Giacinto <<e… più non bere>>, poiché, dopo il terzo sorso, apparirà dolore e pianto.

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Infine Cesare Pavese, scrive “IL VINO TRISTE”:

La fatica è sedersi senza farsi notare.
Tutto il resto poi viene da sé. Tre sorsate
e ritorna la voglia di pensarci da solo.
Si spalanca uno sfondo di lontani ronzii,
ogni cosa si sperde, e diventa un miracolo
esser nato e guardare il bicchiere. Il lavoro
(l’uomo solo non può non pensare al lavoro)
ridiventa l’antico destino che è bello soffrire
per poterci pensare. Poi gli occhi si fissano
a mezz’aria, dolenti, come fossero ciechi.

Se quest’uomo si rialza e va a casa a dormire,
pare un cieco che ha perso la strada. Chiunque
può sbucare da un angolo e pestarlo di colpi.
Può sbucare una donna e distendersi in strada,
bella e giovane, sotto un altr’uomo, gemendo
come un tempo una donna gemeva con lui.
Ma quest’uomo non vede. Va a casa a dormire
e la vita non è che un ronzio di silenzio.

A spogliarlo, quest’uomo, si trovano membra sfinite
e del pelo brutale, qua e là. Chi direbbe
che in quest’uomo trascorrono tiepide vene
dove un tempo la vita bruciava? Nessuno
crederebbe che un tempo una donna abbia fatto carezze
su quel corpo e baciato quel corpo, che trema,
e bagnato di lacrime, adesso che l’uomo
giunto a casa a dormire, non riesce, ma geme.

Con questa lirica, Pavese, trasmette l’inquietudine e la disperazione del mondo, ma anche la grandezza del “mestiere di vivere” (che dà il titolo al suo celebre diario). Egli è originario delle Langhe, terra ad alta vocazione vitivinicola con cui avrà un intimo legame, evidente in tutta la sua produzione letteraria. In tre sorsate di vino, si può andare al di là delle cose consuete del quotidiano, si perde la strada, l’orientamento, ma si riscopre il miracolo di essere vivi.

Tre uomini che hanno vissuto la loro vita in tre periodi storici differenti, ma che condividono più di quanto si possa pensare.

Voi cosa ne pensate? Qual è il brano che più sentite vicino a voi?

“Non c’è cosa migliore da fare, che ascoltare chi ha qualcosa da dire”

 

 

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